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STRESS RESPONSE
  • Scientific research on stress proteins has shown that the public is not being protected from potential damage that can be caused by exposure to EMF, both power frequency (ELF) and radio frequency (RF).
  • Cells react to an EMF as potentially harmful by producing stress proteins (heat shock proteins or hsp).
  • Direct interaction of ELF and RF with DNA has been documented and both activate the synthesis of stress proteins.
  • The biochemical pathway that is activated is the same pathway in both ELF and RF and it is non-thermal.
  • Many biological systems are affected by EMFs (meaning both ELF and RF trigger stress proteins).
  • Many frequencies are active. Field strength and exposure duration thresholds are very low.
  • Molecular mechanisms at very low energies are plausible links to disease (e.g., effect on electron transfer rates linked to oxidative damage, DNA activation linked to abnormal biosynthesis and mutation). Cells react to an EMF as potentially harmful.
  • Many lines of research now point to changes in DNA electron transfer as a plausible mechanism of action as a result of non-thermal ELF and RF.
  • The same biological reaction (production of stress proteins) to an EMF can be activated in more than one division of the EM spectrum.
  • Direct interaction of ELF and RF with DNA has been documented and both activate the synthesis of stress proteins.
  • Thresholds triggering stress on biological systems occur at environment levels on the order of 0.5 to 1.0 ┬ÁT for ELF.
  • DNA damage (e.g., strand breaks), a cause of cancer, occurs at levels of ELF and RF that are below the safety limits. Also, there is no protection against cumulative effects stimulated by different parts of the EM spectrum.
  • The scientific basis for EMF safety limits is flawed when the same biological mechanisms are activated in ELF and RF ranges at vastly different levels of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). Activation of DNA to synthesize stress proteins (the stress response) is stimulated in the ELF at a non-thermal SAR level that is over a billion times lower than the same process activated by RF at the thermal level.
  • There is a need for a biological standard to replace the thermal standard and to also protect against cumulative effects across the EM spectrum.
  • Based on studies of stress proteins, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is not the appropriate measure of biological threshold or dose, and should not be used as a basis for a safety standard since it regulates against thermal effects only.Table 1-1 BioInitiative Report Overall Conclusions