The brain is protected by tight junctions between a djacent cells of capillary walls by the blood- brain barrier (BBB), which selectively lets nutrien ts pass through from the blood to the brain, but keeps toxic substances out. Experiments conducted o n young laboratory rats found that RF from mobile phones can significantly open the BBB in ani mals and cause leakage of albumin from blood vessels in inappropriate locations (neurons a nd glial cells surrounding the capillaries) in the brain. This is shown in Fig. 4 as dark dots in the exposed brain on the right side. Control animals, in contrast, showed either no albumin leak age or occasional isolated spots, as seen on the left side. The presence of albumin in brain tis sue is a sign that blood vessels have been damaged and that the brain has lost some of its pro tection. 14 In another research, a single two-hour exposure to a cell phone just once during its lifetime, permanently damaged the blood-brain barrier and, on autopsy 50 days later, was found to have damaged or destroyed up to 2 percent of an animal’s brain cells, including cells in areas of the brain concerned with learning, memory and movement. It is known that this barrier is damaged in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease. So there is a risk that disruption of this protection barrier may damage the brain.